By Siegfried Kasper, Johan A. den Boer, J.M. Ad Sitsen
Positive factors new to the second one version of this instruction manual contain dimension scales utilized in examine, breakthroughs in pharmacogenomics, epidemiology, genetics, psychophysiology and pharmacology, and superior healing options and final result measures for sufferer care and administration.
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Extra info for Handbook of Depression and Anxiety: A Biological Approach, Second Edition, (Medical Psychiatry, 21)
He considered nerves to be hollow tubes containing a ﬂowing liquid. Under normal circumstances, this neural ﬂuid was thin and volatile; however, if it thickened to an earthy, slimy consistency, then melancholia developed. Under the inﬂuence of Isaac Newton, men such as Mead and Cullen (who was the ﬁrst to use the term neurosis) speculated that this neural ﬂuid might also have electrical properties. Cullen and others thought of this neural ﬂuid as a tenuous, highly mobile substance that was related to ether.
They traversed the neural pathways to reach the heart, the leg muscles, and the circulatory system, and gave rise to the physiological component of the ﬁght-or-ﬂight response. The altered distribution of blood then caused a rush of these esprits animaux (animal spirits) to the brain. Here, the pores associated with fear were opened, directing the esprits onward, back toward the periphery. Mental inﬂuences were not, therefore, presumed to be involved in the generation of fear. Instead, fear was seen as a complex, but purely physiological, reﬂex.
Originally this term was used only in relation to biological factors; now it was extended to include intrapsychic and situational factors as well, thus 20 Glas highlighting the demarcation between depression and neurosis. New dichotomies consequently arose, such as endogenous/reactive (Lange); autonomous/reactive (Gillespie); endogenous/neurotic; psychotic/neurotic. After World War II, these were supplemented by S (somatic) type/J ( justiﬁed) type (Pollitt); and vital depression/personal depression (van Praag).
Handbook of Depression and Anxiety: A Biological Approach, Second Edition, (Medical Psychiatry, 21) by Siegfried Kasper, Johan A. den Boer, J.M. Ad Sitsen