By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl
During this 3rd version of his well known undergraduate-level textbook, Des Nicholl recognises sound clutch of uncomplicated rules is key in any advent to genetic engineering. accordingly, in addition to being completely up to date, the e-book additionally keeps its specialise in the elemental ideas utilized in gene manipulation. The textual content is split into 3 sections: half I presents an advent to the correct easy molecular biology; half II, the tools used to govern genes; and half III, purposes of the know-how. there's a new bankruptcy dedicated to the rising significance of bioinformatics as a unique self-discipline. different extra beneficial properties contain textual content containers, which spotlight very important facets of subject matters mentioned, and bankruptcy summaries, which come with goals and studying results. those, in addition to key note listings, thought maps and a thesaurus, will allow scholars to tailor their research to fit their very own studying kinds and finally achieve a company seize of an issue that scholars generally locate tricky.
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Extra info for An introduction to genetic engineering
Translation requires an mRNA molecule, a supply of charged tRNAs (tRNA molecules with their associated amino acid residues), and ribosomes (composed of rRNA and ribosomal proteins). The ribosomes are the sites where protein synthesis occurs; in prokaryotes, ribosomes are composed of three rRNAs and some 52 different ribosomal proteins. The ribosome is a complex structure that essentially acts as a ‘jig’ that holds the mRNA in place so that the codons may be matched up with the appropriate anticodon on the tRNA, thus ensuring that the correct amino acid is inserted into the growing polypeptide chain.
This dye binds between the DNA bases (intercalates) and ﬂuoresces orange when illuminated with ultraviolet (uv) light. By comparing the ﬂuorescence of the sample with that of a series of standards, an estimate of the concentration may be obtained. This method can detect as little as 1--5 ng of DNA and may be used when uv-absorbing contaminants make spectrophotometric measurements impossible. Having determined the concentration of a solution of nucleic acid, any amount (in theory) may be dispensed by taking the appropriate volume of solution.
Some of the applications of nucleic acid hybridisation as a method for identifying cloned DNA fragments will be discussed in Chapter 8. 6 Gel electrophoresis Separation of biomolecules by gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful techniques in molecular biology. The technique of gel electrophoresis is vital to the genetic engineer, as it represents the main way by which nucleic acid fragments may be visualised directly. The method relies on the fact that nucleic acids are polyanionic at neutral pH; that is, they carry multiple negative charges because of the phosphate groups on the phosphodiester backbone of the nucleic acid strands.
An introduction to genetic engineering by Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl